The last emigre President of the Republic of Poland. Born on 26 November 1919 in Bialystok where he completed a school of commerce. Just like his predecessor, he was a scout. In 1940 he was arrested by the NKWD and sentenced to death.
After the amnesty in 1941, he enlisted in the General Anders Army and, after its evacuation, joined the 3rd Division of Carpathian Gunners, where he completed division secondary school. In England he completed a foreign trade college. Until 1986, worked in business as an accountant. During 1955-1967, he was the Chiefof Scouts, and, subsequently, President of the emigre Polish Scouting Union (ZHP). As Minister for Domestic Affairs he was designated as President Sabbats successor.
He handed over the insignia of the presidential power of the 2nd Republic to President Lech Walesa.